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12 Apr, 23

Visualizing One Year of Sand, Gravel, and Stone Consumption in the U.S.

Mineralocity AggregatesGreenfield Site Selection, M&A, Market Analysis

Aggregate minerals, which include raw materials such as sand, gravel, and stone, are the building blocks of our cities and an integral part of the U.S. economy.

From being used to make the concrete that shapes our buildings to being the foundation of our roads, aggregates are necessary to maintain our quality of life. But just how much do we rely on these raw materials each year?

To explore the answer, this visualization from our sponsor Burgex uses forecast data from Mineralocity Aggregates to show how much crushed stone, sand, and gravel the U.S. is expected to consume in 2023.

Crushed Stone

Crushed stone is a versatile material that has a variety of uses in road and building construction, landscaping, and other industries. It is typically made from various types of rock, such as limestone, dolomite, and granite, that have been broken down into different sizes.

According to projections by Minerolocity Aggregates, the U.S. will consume 1.73 billion U.S. tons of crushed stone in 2023.

Taking its 100 lb/ft³ density into account, that is equivalent to a cube 3,259 feet high. That’s nearly double the height of the One World Trade Center, the tallest building in the U.S., standing at 1,776 feet as an homage to the country’s Declaration of Independence.

It’s also worth considering per capita usage to grasp the magnitude of aggregates we depend on in our daily lives. In 2023, each American is projected to account for the consumption of approximately 5.2 tons of crushed stone.

While crushed stone production is prevalent across the United States, here are some states that sold the most of this aggregate mineral in 2021.

State2021 Crushed Stone Sales in Thousands of U.S. Tons
Texas187,393
Florida104,609
Pennsylvania96,673
Ohio77,052
California56,218

With 99% of all U.S. demand being met by domestic production in 2022, crushed stone is an integral part of the U.S. economy.

Sand and Gravel

Sand and gravel are essential natural resources that are widely used in construction and agriculture. They also have wide uses in industrial activities, such as glass manufacturing, foundries, and metal casting, as well as in recreational activities, such as volleyball courts, golf courses, and beaches.

In 2023, the U.S. is forecasted to consume 1.12 billion U.S. tons of sand and gravel. This is more than 3.3 tons per person. 

Here are the top producers of sand and gravel in the United States.

State2021 Sand and Gravel Sales in Thousands of U.S. Tons
California125,663
Texas104,940
Ohio38,801
Florida23,920
Pennsylvania7,529

Aggregate minerals are the building blocks of our modern lives.

With over 7,000 commercial aggregate companies operating in the U.S. (while contributing $31 billion to the economy in 2022), their importance to our lives and the economy should not be underestimated.